Craterus, a high-ranking officer, already had been sent off with the baggage and siege train, the elephants, and the sick and wounded, together with three battalions of the phalanx, by way of the Mulla Pass, Quetta, and Kandahar into the Helmand Valley; from there he was to march through Drangiana to rejoin the main army on the Amanis (modern Minab) River in Carmania. In 334, Alexander embarked on his Asiatic expedition, arriving in Troy that spring. In 328, Alexander defeated King Porus' armies in northern India. The first critical biography of Alexander Campbell, one of the founders of the Stone-Campbell Movement . At Phrada in Drangiana (either near modern Nad-e Ê¿Ali in Seistan or farther north at Farah), he at last took steps to destroy Parmenio and his family. Oscar Hammerstein II collaborated with Richard Rodgers on popular musicals such as ‘Oklahoma!,’ ‘South Pacific,’ ‘Carousel,’ ‘The King and I’ and ‘The Sound of Music.’. Mosaic of Alexander the Great discovered in the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy. Life Of Alexander The Grea‪t‬ Cameron Reilly & Ray Harris History 4.4 • 83 Ratings; Listen on Apple Podcasts. He was just 32 years old. Before continuing his pursuit of Darius, who had retreated into Bactria, he assembled all the Persian treasure and entrusted it to Harpalus, who was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer. Alexander forged eastward to the Ganges but headed back when his armies refused to advance any farther. The tyrants were expelled and (in contrast to Macedonian policy in Greece) democracies were installed. He became the head of an empire that was expanded by his son and successor, Alexander the Great. The following spring at Babylon he received complimentary embassies from the Libyans and from the Bruttians, Etruscans, and Lucanians of Italy; but the story that embassies also came from more distant peoples, such as Carthaginians, Celts, Iberians, and even Romans, is a later invention. He was a pioneer of kinetic sculpture or mobiles: works with discreet moving parts. His troops were extremely loyal, believing in him throughout all hardships. For a long time his mind had dwelt on ideas of godhead. Alexander pursued the defeated Persian forces for 35 miles to Arbela, but Darius escaped with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries into Media. He now seems to have become convinced of the reality of his own divinity and to have required its acceptance by others. From Issus Alexander marched south into Syria and Phoenicia, his object being to isolate the Persian fleet from its bases and so to destroy it as an effective fighting force. In spring 330 Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital. The exploits of the Ten Thousand, Greek soldiers of fortune, and of Agesilaus of Sparta, in successfully campaigning in Persian territory had revealed the vulnerability of the Persian empire. In 14 days Alexander marched 240 miles from Pelion (near modern Korçë, Albania) in Illyria to Thebes. Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, served as empress of Russia for more than three decades in the late 18th century after overthrowing her husband, Peter III. Conquest was Alexander's main–and perhaps only–ambition. This army was to prove remarkable for its balanced combination of arms. In summer 324 Alexander attempted to solve another problem, that of the wandering mercenaries, of whom there were thousands in Asia and Greece, many of them political exiles from their own cities. Meanwhile, Alexander's general, Parmenion, had already made his way to Asia Minor. Compre o livro The Life of Alexander Alexander; In Two Volumes na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados The king was shocked, and as a consolation, he massacred the Cossaeans, a mountain tribe in the Zagros, who were forced to give up their nomad lives and settle in towns. Although Alexander's army was outnumbered, he used his flair for military strategy to create formations that defeated the Persians again and caused Darius to flee. Instead of taking the direct route down the river to Babylon, he made across northern Mesopotamia toward the Tigris, and Darius, learning of this move from an advance force sent under Mazaeus to the Euphrates crossing, marched up the Tigris to oppose him. Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzanes, he entered Persepolis and Pasargadae. He was fortunate that the power of Persia was in decline. Life Of Alexander Podcast. The provinces became independent kingdoms, and the generals, following Antigonus’s lead in 306, took the title of king. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccas, both cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Pass, while he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north. Following up Nearchus’s voyage, he now founded an Alexandria at the mouth of the Tigris and made plans to develop sea communications with India, for which an expedition along the Arabian coast was to be a preliminary. There is no basis for the tradition that he turned aside to visit Jerusalem. By fall, Alexander and his army had made it across the southern coast of Asia Minor to Gordium, where they took the winter to rest. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/alexander-the-great. After Alexander died, his empire collapsed and the nations within it battled for power. After visiting Ilium (Troy), a romantic gesture inspired by Homer, he confronted his first Persian army, led by three satraps, at the Granicus (modern Kocabaş) River, near the Sea of Marmara (May/June 334). He was born in 356 bce at Pella in Macedonia, the son of Philip II and Olympias (daughter of King Neoptolemus of Epirus). If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! After taking Byblos (modern Jubayl) and Sidon (Arabic á¹¢aydā), he met with a check at Tyre, where he was refused entry into the island city. Once Philip II had succeeded in his campaign to unite all the Greek states (minus Sparta) into the Corinthian League, the alliance between father and son soon disintegrated. This allowed for Hellenistic culture to become widespread. In September Alexander too set out along the coast through Gedrosia (modern Baluchistan), but he was soon compelled by mountainous country to turn inland, thus failing in his project to establish food depots for the fleet. The Life of Alexander the Great is one of the fi rst surviving attempts to memorialize the achievements of this legendary king, remembered today as the greatest military genius of all time. Turning, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. From Alexandria he marched along the coast to Paraetonium and from there inland to visit the celebrated oracle of the god Amon (at SÄ«wah); the difficult journey was later embroidered with flattering legends. Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Khawak Pass (11,650 feet [3,550 metres]), Alexander brought his army, despite food shortages, to Drapsaca (sometimes identified with modern Banu [Andarab], probably farther north at Qunduz); outflanked, Bessus fled beyond the Oxus (modern Amu Darya), and Alexander, marching west to Bactra-Zariaspa (modern Balkh [Wazirabad] in Afghanistan), appointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria. Later the incident was to contribute to the story that he was the son of Zeus and, thus, to his “deification.” In spring 331 he returned to Tyre, appointed a Macedonian satrap for Syria, and prepared to advance into Mesopotamia. His determination to incorporate Persians on equal terms in the army and the administration of the provinces was bitterly resented. From age 13 to 16 he was taught by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who inspired his interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation. As in Egypt, the local priesthood was encouraged. This ruthless action excited widespread horror but strengthened Alexander’s position relative to his critics and those whom he regarded as his father’s men. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His vast empire stretched east into India. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. All Parmenio’s adherents were now eliminated and men close to Alexander promoted. The cities perforce complied, but often ironically: the Spartan decree read, “Since Alexander wishes to be a god, let him be a god.”. After conquering cities, Alexander the Great would name them after himself. It is the life of Alexander the king, and of Caesar, who overthrew Pompey, that I am writing in this book, and the multitude of the deeds to be treated is so great that I shall make no other preface than to entreat my readers, in case I do not tell of all the famous actions of these men, nor even speak exhaustively at all in each particular case, but in epitome for the most part, not to complain. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Alexander owned an enormous empire when he was alive.He ruled almost all of Ancient Greece. Agesilaus, Pelopidas, Dion, Timoleon, Demosthenes, Phocion, Alexander, … But the cities remained de facto under Alexander, and his appointment of Calas as satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia reflected his claim to succeed the Great King of Persia. By the fall of 336, he reissued treaties with the Greek city-states that belonged to the Corinthian League — with Athens still refusing membership — and was granted full military power in the campaign against the Persian Empire. Three days after his arrival, Alexander led the massacre of Thebes. A year later, while still just a teen, he became a soldier and embarked on his first military expedition, against the Thracian tribes. Conquest of the Mediterranean coast and Egypt, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-the-Great, History World - History of Alexander The Great, The Mariner's Museum and Park - Ages of Exploration - Biography of Alexander the Great, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Alexander The Great, Social Studies for Kids - Biography of Alexander the Great, Livius - Biography of Alexander the Great, PBS LearningMedia - The Rise of Alexander the Great, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Alexander the Great, Alexander the Great - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Alexander the Great - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A Life of Alexander Campbell examines the core identity of a gifted and determined reformer to whom millions of Christians around the globe today owe much of their identity—whether they know it or not.. Douglas Foster assesses principal parts of Campbell’s life … Recrossing the Hindu Kush, probably by Bamiyan and the Ghorband Valley, Alexander divided his forces. Macedonian garrisons were left in Corinth, Chalcis, and the Cadmea (the citadel of Thebes). Over time, the cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as a side effect of Alexander's empire, becoming part of his legacy and spreading the spirit of Panhellenism. He planned to lead part of his forces back by land, while the rest in perhaps 100 to 150 ships under the command of Nearchus, a Cretan with naval experience, made a voyage of exploration along the Persian Gulf. His advance through Swāt and Gandhāra was marked by the storming of the almost impregnable pinnacle of Aornos, the modern Pir-Sar, a few miles west of the Indus and north of the Buner River, an impressive feat of siegecraft. With a good cavalry force Alexander could expect to defeat any Persian army. The Life of Alexander the Great is one of the first surviving attempts to memorialize the achievements of this legendary king, remembered today as the greatest military genius of all time. Meanwhile, Darius with his Grand Army had advanced northward on the eastern side of Mount Amanus. At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. In reply to a letter from Darius offering peace, Alexander replied arrogantly, recapitulating the historic wrongs of Greece and demanding unconditional surrender to himself as lord of Asia. Alexander did lead an interesting life, to say the least. The march was attended with much fighting and heavy, pitiless slaughter; at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes (Ravi) River, Alexander received a severe wound which left him weakened. Hamilton was born on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies, on January … In October, Alexander's lover Hephaestion died in Ecbatana. Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army—consisting of 3,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry—southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. He found that his treasurer, Harpalus, evidently fearing punishment for peculation, had absconded with 6,000 mercenaries and 5,000 talents to Greece; arrested in Athens, he escaped and later was murdered in Crete. Shortly afterward, at Bactra, he attempted to impose the Persian court ceremonial, involving prostration (proskynesis), on the Greeks and Macedonians too, but to them this custom, habitual for Persians entering the king’s presence, implied an act of worship and was intolerable before a human. When the Thebans refused to surrender, he made an entry and razed their city to the ground, sparing only temples and Pindar’s house; 6,000 were killed and all survivors sold into slavery. Compre o livro The Life Of Alexander Alexander: In Two Volumes, Volume 1 de Alexander Alexander e John Howell em Bertrand.pt. He thereupon prepared to use all methods of siegecraft to take it, but the Tyrians resisted, holding out for seven months. There is no reason to assume that his demand had any political background (divine status gave its possessor no particular rights in a Greek city); it was rather a symptom of growing megalomania and emotional instability. While in Babylon, Alexander became ill after a prolonged banquet and drinking bout, and on June 13, 323, he died at age 33. EMBED (for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item tags) Want more? No heir had been appointed to the throne, and his generals adopted Philip II’s half-witted illegitimate son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Alexander’s posthumous son by Roxana, Alexander IV, as kings, sharing out the satrapies among themselves, after much bargaining. This policy of racial fusion brought increasing friction to Alexander’s relations with his Macedonians, who had no sympathy for his changed concept of the empire. Alexander's personal life was complicated. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, and Alexander abandoned it. In autumn 324 Hephaestion died in Ecbatana, and Alexander indulged in extravagant mourning for his closest friend; he was given a royal funeral in Babylon with a pyre costing 10,000 talents. This exclusive Modern Library edition, excerpted from Plutarch's Lives, is a riveting tale of honor, power, scandal, and bravery written by the most eminent biographer of the ancient world. His body, diverted to Egypt by Ptolemy, the later king, was eventually placed in a golden coffin in Alexandria. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Omissions? Alexander was but twenty years old when his father was murdered, and succeeded to a kingdom, beset on all sides with great dangers and rancorous enemies. Both kings were murdered, Arrhidaeus in 317 and Alexander in 310/309. This exclusive Modern Library edition, excerpted from Plutarch’s Lives , is a riveting tale of honor, power, scandal, and bravery written by the most eminent biographer of the ancient world. Then during a meeting of league members at Thermopylae, Alexander elicited their acceptance of his leadership. Alexander's next conquest was eastern Iran, where he created Macedonian colonies and in 327 seized the fortress in Ariamazes. His empire spread from Gibraltar to the Punjab, and he made Greek the lingua franca of his world, the … Alexander the Great's conquests freed the West from the menace of Persian rule and spread Greek civilization and culture into Asia and Egypt. The fleet was commanded by Nearchus, and Alexander’s own captain was Onesicritus; both later wrote accounts of the campaign. In 336, Alexander's sister wed the Molossian king, an uncle who was also called Alexander. From his accession Alexander had set his mind on the Persian expedition. Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. In addition, Persian nobles had been accepted into the royal cavalry bodyguard. Moreover, he needed the wealth of Persia if he was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the 500 talents he owed. In February 324, Alexander at last reached the city of Susa. Meanwhile, a rumour of his death had precipitated a revolt of Theban democrats; other Greek states favoured Thebes, and the Athenians, urged on by Demosthenes, voted help. In 331, he created the city of Alexandria, designed as a hub for Greek culture and commerce. The Life of Alexander the Great is one of the fi rst surviving attempts to memorialize the achievements of this legendary king, remembered today as the greatest military genius of all time. Darius’s death left no obstacle to Alexander’s claim to be Great King, and a Rhodian inscription of this year (330) calls him “lord of Asia”—i.e., of the Persian empire; soon afterward his Asian coins carry the title of king. His family moved out of London and settled in Binfield in Windsor Forest around 1700. As a teenager, Alexander became known for his exploits on the battlefield. Alexander’s second in command was Parmenio, who had secured a foothold in Asia Minor during Philip’s lifetime; many of his family and supporters were entrenched in positions of responsibility. Alexander particularly delighted in impersonating the warrior Achilles. Seeing that Homer's Iliad inspired Alexander to dream of becoming a heroic warrior, Aristotle created an abridged version of the tome for Alexander to carry with him on military campaigns. 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